Introduction and Overview (3)*
An outline of the scope of the course and its instructional methods; an assessment of the changing nature and content of financial management (especially accounting) for oil and gas operations; a review of comparative financial information measurement and reporting systems around the world.
Some Background to Oil and Gas Operations, Exploration, Development and Production (6)
An introduction to some of the issues including reserves, tools, methods and background of the industry touching briefly on the occurrence, migration and entrapment of oil and gas in the reservoir; exploration and development methods; petroleum geology and reservoir engineering; production mechanics; the nature of oil and gas and some comments on the refining sector. An outline case approach to the exploration, later development and production of a field will be used to illustrate alternatives and will cover aspects of geology and production engineering integrated into economic concepts. These sessions will introduce the broad concepts affecting economics and viability from a practical view of the industry fundamentals and set the scene in particular for the adjoining sessions on International Economics of Oil and Gas as well as relating these practical aspects to other course sectors.
International Economics of Oil and Gas (6)
A practical approach to assessing the economic merits of oil and gas projects for state concerns or private industry. Following discussion on some of the economic fundamentals the sessions will focus on assessing project viability. A key aspect of these sessions will concentrate on what makes good project economics with a discussion of some of the pitfalls to be avoided. A case study will be used to put many of these individual approaches in context. The intent is to put international decision economics in the light of common sense practical petroleum- related investment in the current climate.
Oil and Gas Accounting (6)
Detailed review of accounting principles, practices and procedures relating to various phases of oil and gas operations, including: property acquisition, retention and surrender; predrilling exploration; exploratory and development drilling; impairment and amortization of capitalized costs; oil and gas production; joint interest operations, and the related financial statement disclosures. Participants will be asked to comment on their oil and gas accounting systems.
International Oil and Gas Law (9)
A review of different contractual arrangements used to explore, develop and produce oil and gas. The evolving contractual granting process will be analyzed by studying fundamentals of licenses, concessions, risk service agreements and production sharing contracts. Specific emphasis will be given to: fiscal and economic regime, work commitments, work programs, terms, government compensation and government share, use of local companies and workers, government operating companies, surrender provisions, marketing, natural gas, exchange controls, arbitration, and force majeure. As most oil and gas operations are joint ventures, joint operating agreements governing shared operations will be analyzed. Specific attention will be devoted to the: operating committee, operator authority, expenditure process, sole risk and non-consent, assignments and preferential rights. The Model Form International Accounting Procedures will be analyzed and discussed along with a typical Host Government Accounting Procedures. Participants will be asked to briefly present to the class the legal, fiscal and economic regime used in their country.
International Taxation of Petroleum Enterprises (6)
General review of taxation systems of the world; comparative international tax systems; tax treaties and their impact on international taxation; foreign tax credit-concept and application; US tax system in general, taxation of foreign operations, taxation of domestic operations by foreign persons, US taxation of oil and gas industry; taxation of oil and gas in developing countries. Participants will be asked to give a presentation on their country’s taxation system, with particular reference to oil and gas operations.
The Audit Process (3)
The auditing of operations (e.g., financial, operational and computer auditing), and internal and external audit problems of oil and gas activities; and the interrelationship with accounting principles and standards. The various international auditing standards (ISA) and their relevance for oil and gas financial management.
International Accounting Concepts and Standards (3)
An overview of the status of International Accounting Standards (International Financial Reporting Standards) and their relevance to oil and gas accounting; efforts to harmonize international and regional accounting concepts, procedures, and practices; discussion of the United States Securities and Exchange Commission’s views on International Financial Reporting Standards, considerations when registering securities with the Securities and Exchange Commission from an international viewpoint. Harmonization of financial accounting diversity.
Planning and Control of International Operations (3)
An appraisal of various planning and control issues faced in international operations; inter-country difficulties; the role of the controller; the interaction of financial planning and control issues. Case Study.
Fraud: Detection and Prevention (2)
A review of the white collar crime problem, the elements of fraud, a profile of typical white collar criminals, the most common types of fraud crimes, and indicators of fraudulent acts that the financial professional often is in the best position to detect. The course provides an overview of the fraud examination as a methodology of resolving fraud allegations from inception to disposition.
Ethics and Compliance Programs (2)
Most large companies implement a code of conduct to guide employees, officers and directors in complying with laws and regulations. The United States Federal Sentencing Guidelines defined an effective compliance program. This presentation will discuss the definition of an effective compliance program and what companies do to guide their employees.
Sustainability for Oil & Gas Operations (3)
An assessment of the socio-economic aspects included in oil and gas operations, including the accounting, auditing and reporting for environmental aspects, health and safety. The information needs for stakeholders, the groups that have a direct stake in the affairs of an organization are the focus. A sustainability index that tracks the performance of organizations reflects such broader responsibility. The governmental regulatory aspects of a national and international nature are becoming more and more significant. It furthermore deals with the human resource and ethical aspects, and the valuation and evaluation of such services.
Capital Investment Decisions (3)This module explores the techniques utilized in analyzing capital investments in oil and gas operations. The topics covered include an overview of discounted cash flow analysis, the estimation of the appropriate discount rates for valuing future cash flows, the inter-relation relation between the internal rate of return and the net present value for a capital investment project, and the analysis of capital investment projects that provide embedded strategic options.
Financing of Operations: Principles, Practices and Analytical Tools (3)
This module examines the financial instruments that financial managers use to finance corporate operations and capital investments. The topics covered include the basic financing instruments used to raise capital, the principles and analytical tools used in evaluating the maturity mix for corporate debt, and the impact of the mix of debt and equity use to finance corporate operations on the firm’s overall cost of financing. The basic financing instruments reviewed include common stocks, bonds, commercial paper, and commercial bank financing.
Risk Management (3)
This lecture is organized in three parts. First, we discuss the basic aspects of financial derivatives instruments used for corporate hedging. Next, we discuss the circumstances in which risk management adds value to a firm’s shareholders. Finally, we present a few examples of non standard derivatives instruments which are particularly useful for risk management in the energy sector.
Turning Around an Oil Company: The Oxy Case (3)
What did it take to turn around one of the worst managed companies in the Fortune 500? How did Oxy become the oil company with the most profit per barrel? How did Oxy get to be #1 on Fortune’s 2014 “Most Admired” list for its market space? The answers center around a CEO who emphasized agility as a management style and created a culture that simultaneously emphasized safety, productivity and profitability. Going for cash flow and shrinking to improve profits were key indicators.
Econometrics is the application of mathematics, statistical methods, and, more recently, computer science, to economic data and is described as the branch of economics that aims to give empirical content to economic relations. It is the quantitative analysis of actual economic phenomena based on the concurrent development of theory and observation, related by appropriate methods of inference. Econometrics allow analysts to sift through mountains of data to extract simple relationships. Examples of Econometrics include: (a) Innovation sustainability (b)USA decentralization into a federation of sub-countries and nation-states (c) Future economic growth of the different regions of the USA
Multi-generational workforce (3)
For the first time in history, four generations are working side by side in the workplace. We will address the 4-5 distinct work groups and perform various group activities. We will address how departments are trying to balance a generation gap of more than 50 years between the oldest and youngest employees. We will show the various skill and communication levels between generations and how culture is extremely important.
Natural gas history and regulation
This session provides a regulatory perspective of the evolution of the US natural gas industry. We outline changes in policies governing the upstream, midstream, and downstream assets of natural gas firms, and discuss how these policy changes affected natural gas pricing, including how they facilitated the emergence of a natural gas pricing hubs. We compare the US natural gas industry experience to that of Europe, and examine the historic and future potential for regional pipeline and LNG trade.
The US shale revolution and LNG export debate
This session presents an overview of the US shale industry, including the economic, regulatory, and legal developments that have allowed it to thrive. We discuss the effect of US shale oil and gas production on commodity prices, changes in the US energy portfolio, environmental outcomes, and geopolitical relationships. We also outline and evaluate economically popular arguments in support of and in opposition to shale development, and examine potential challenges the industry may face in the future.
Case Study (3)
A case study will be chosen pertaining to current issues in the Oil and Gas Industry. Participants will be divided into teams and asked to present on the various questions / issues involved. Specific instructions will be given to Participants during the first class session.